My Personal Finance Journey

Personal finance observation, musing and decisions in a journey toward financial independence by 2020 with at least $3 million.

By Topics

0. About (10)
1. My Progress (139)
2. Car & Home (107)
3. Credit (138)
4. Banking (33)
5. Saving (49)
6. Investing (308)
7. Taxes (89)
8. Spending (74)
9. Misc (97)
A. Archive (49)


Feb 2014 (3)
Jan 2014 (6)
Jan 2012 (1)
Apr 2011 (1)
Mar 2011 (1)
Feb 2011 (1)
Jan 2011 (1)
Dec 2010 (1)
Oct 2010 (1)
Sep 2010 (1)
Aug 2010 (1)
Jul 2010 (1)
Jun 2010 (1)
May 2010 (1)
Apr 2010 (1)
Mar 2010 (6)
Feb 2010 (2)
Jan 2010 (7)
Dec 2009 (3)
Feb 2009 (4)
Jan 2009 (8)
Dec 2008 (1)
Jun 2008 (2)
May 2008 (2)
Apr 2008 (5)
Feb 2008 (3)
Jan 2008 (15)
Dec 2007 (32)
Nov 2007 (6)
Oct 2007 (8)
Sep 2007 (9)
Aug 2007 (24)
Jul 2007 (2)
Jun 2007 (1)
May 2007 (3)
Apr 2007 (4)
Mar 2007 (4)
Feb 2007 (13)
Jan 2007 (6)
Dec 2006 (3)
Nov 2006 (7)
Oct 2006 (7)
Sep 2006 (6)
Aug 2006 (4)
Jul 2006 (10)
Jun 2006 (1)
May 2006 (3)
Apr 2006 (2)
Mar 2006 (6)
Feb 2006 (6)
Jan 2006 (3)
Dec 2005 (1)
Nov 2005 (9)
Oct 2005 (8)
Sep 2005 (13)
Aug 2005 (25)
Jul 2005 (16)
Jun 2005 (17)
May 2005 (19)
Apr 2005 (20)
Mar 2005 (24)
Feb 2005 (23)
Jan 2005 (36)
Dec 2004 (40)
Nov 2004 (34)
Oct 2004 (17)
Sep 2004 (21)
Aug 2004 (59)
Jul 2004 (37)
Jun 2004 (31)
May 2004 (29)
Apr 2004 (52)
Mar 2004 (49)
Feb 2004 (49)
Jan 2004 (31)
Dec 2003 (48)
Nov 2003 (52)
Oct 2003 (29)
Sep 2003 (8)
Aug 2003 (5)
Jul 2003 (2)
Jun 2003 (2)
May 2003 (5)
Apr 2003 (2)
Mar 2003 (2)
Feb 2003 (3)
Jan 2003 (29)


Credit Dispute Experience at Experian and Equifax

Contributed by mm | October 21, 2006 9:00 AM PST

For more than four years, it seems that the credit reports of both my wife and I are immune to material errors -- the biggest inaccuracies in our reports are merely a wrong zip code and a wrong birthday, and over the time, we enjoyed best ratess in mortgage and floods of juicy credit card offers.

However, my wife's lucky streak ended recently.

Lately I activated one-year free credit monitoring service at Experian for my wife (thanks to promotional offers in Microsoft Money 2007). The credit monitoring service includes a free credit report, unlimited credit score update and analysis over 12 months. The initial pull of credit score and report surprised us a lot: my wife's credit score was only 661, and there is a collection item on the credit report. At that moment, I started to wonder how the "universal default" clause in our massive credit card inventory will play against us now that we have over $40,000 in l0% or low APR balance transfers.

A closer look at the collection item turned an account we have no idea whatsoever:

Agency Address: 3000 Corporate Exchange Dr, Columbus, OH 432317689 (336) 333-3100
Date Reported: 05/2006
Date Assigned: 12/2005
Creditor Classification:
Accounts Number: 3483XXXX
Account Owner: Individual Account.
Original Amount Owned: $226
Date of 1st Delinquency: 10/2005
Balance Date: 05/2006
Balance Owned: $226
Date of Last Activity : n/a
Status Date: 05/2006
Status: D - Unpaid
Comments: N/A

In fact, we have never been a Cingular customer (we currently keep two mobile numbers with Verizon Wireless with $1.00 monthly maintenance fee, and we used to be a Virgin Mobile customer.), and we've never been contacted about this account, nor any collection activities!

I immediately turned to the national free credit report service to pull out my wife's credit report at Equifax and Transunion. The Equifax report was contaminated with the same collection information, while the Transunion report is error-free. On the brighter side, all three reports seem to indicate this collection item is more a clerical error instead of blatant identity theft -- there are no credit inquiries from unknown parties, and we don't have any unfamiliar accounts except for this one.

Confident that we shouldn't be penalized for something we didn't do, and we stand a good chance to right the wrong, we initiated credit dispute process with both Experian and Equifax. Both credit bureaus allow online dispute, but I have to say the credit dispute experience at Experian is much better than that of Equifax:

- Experian: After submitting a form, I was provided a confirmation number. Within three days, I received an email indicating the collection item has been removed from my credit report. After the removal, my wife credit score was boosted from 661 to 728.

- Equifax: Unlike Experian's, the online credit dispute form at Equifax does not leave space for any verbatim feedback, nor does it provide a confirmation number that allows you to track the dispute progress online. Now I am waiting for early November to retrieve our postal mails from our UPS mailbox, and hopefully the dispute will turn in our favor.

(P.S. We haven't been affected by "universal default" clause yet, and probably never will.)

This Post Has Received 80 Comments. Share Your Opinions Too.

MrOpine Commented on October 21, 2006

I suspect Experian, at some point over the last 6 months, implemented some new "system" to integrate data from different sources. Why? The EXACT same thing happened to me, my credit report became contaminated with strange overdue loans that I'd never heard of. Upon calling Experian (after much trouble) I came to find out the same person with a similar name to mine got "merged" into my credit file. No explanation as to why or who did it just that two seperate people with totally different SSNs got merged onto one file. I did later find out that we had lived in the same zip code and gone to the same college so someone must have assumed we were the same person.

What got me started on the path of finding out what was wrong with my credit file was the fact that a rather rude collection agency started calling me at home demanding payment for credit cards and loans I'd never taken out.

I can only imagine the horror if I had let it go like that for a year or two THEN tried to dispute it. Credit Bureaus are a joke and they should be sued until they are bankrupt or they clean up their act.

Nagel Commented on October 22, 2006

That is some important information. Many people do not even look at their credit reports and studies show a large percent have errors.

Credit bureaus do seem to be a scam. Why should anyone have to pay for their own personal information? While the government probably would do it worse there has to be a way to get it done because it will affect more and more people.

pab Commented on October 22, 2006

Luckily, I have not (yet) had this experience of having incorrect or fraudulent information on my credit reports. However, I regularly obtain free copies of our credit bureau reports from and have done research to prepare myself in case this happens, which I would like to share with you:

Thanks to the FACT Act, we are eligible to receive one free copy from each of the three major credit bureau agencies: Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion. Two options:
1. Obtain one copy of all three at the same time... Repeat in 12 months.
2. Space out your requests over 12 months by obtaining one copy of Equifax, then in four months obtain a copy of Experian, and then in four months obtain a copy of TransUnion... Repeat cycle.

Either way, it is important that we are regularly reviewing our credit file since it is so important to get the best interest rate on loans as well as protect from identity theft. If you can take the time to review your credit (whether every one a year or once every four months), then you should not have to pay for a credit monitoring service. If you cannot take the time to do this or do not have the patience to do so, look for an introductory or complimentary credit monitoring service as mm has taken advantage of.

It is important to note, however, that any credit disputes must go through the credit bureau agencies, who will contact the creditor to confirm your statements... You cannot contact the creditor directly and ask them to remove the information from the credit report. Creditors normally send a monthly file (electronically or on a CD) to the three agencies, and it is up to the agencies to correctly read the file and update the appropriate information with the appropriate credit reports.

Of course, your personal "investigation" of any incorrect or fraudulent information could start with the creditor. In this case, call or visit the creditor to find out the source/cause of the mistake. Then, ask for their response in writing on their company letterhead. Draft a dispute letter to send it to the credit bureau agency with a copy of the letter that you received from the creditor and a copy of the whole report with the incorrect information circled and/or highlighted. Always keep the originals of all of these documents, send your letter by certified mail, and request a return receipt so you can document what the agency received and when. Credit bureau agencies must investigate the items in question - usually within 30 days - unless they consider your dispute frivolous. As mentioned in the previous paragraph, the agency will then contact the creditor to confirm your statement. They also must forward all relevant data you provide about the dispute to the information provider. After the information provider receives notice of a dispute from the credit bureau agency, it must investigate, review all relevant information provided, and report the results to the credit bureau agency. If the information provider finds the disputed information to be inaccurate, it must notify any nationwide credit bureau that it reports to so that the credit bureaus can correct this information.

Note that:
* Disputed information that cannot be verified must be deleted from your file.
* If your report contains erroneous information, the credit bureau must correct it.
* If an item is incomplete, the credit bureau must complete it. For example, if your file shows that you have been late making payments, but fails to show that you are no longer delinquent, the credit report must show that you’re current.
* If your file shows an account that belongs to someone else, the credit bureau must delete it.

You should remember that positive credit information will stay on your report for up to seven years, and negative information could stay on your report for as long as 10 years. For example, we cannot dispute that a closed account still appears on our report. However, if it is not marked as “closed,” then we can dispute that it has been closed but not ask that it be removed. For another example, if we had a collection item that we later paid, we cannot ask that the collection be removed but we can send a dispute to ask that it be updated as “paid” and to show a zero balance due.

For more information, consult and

jengod Commented on October 24, 2006

I had almost the exact same situation: a collection appeared on my report for a Cingular account based out of Ventura. I've never had a Cingular phone nor resided in Ventura. I complained and it was cleared very quickly, but lord knows how long it was on there before I pulled my report and found it. This was actually back before I knew what FICO was, so I think I was turned down for a credit card or something (which I did NOT need), and I was like, "Really?" because while I was in debt up to my eyeballs, I was always on time with my tiny, useless minimum payment. I pulled the report and was shocked at the mistake. Anyway, hearing your story and comparing it mine makes me think Cingular has very fishy standards for its customer base, i.e. permitting new applications from identity thieves in the first place, and then not having any capacity to elicit payment from them after a default. Commented on October 25, 2006

This article is well written and can be very informative for consumers with credit issues. I hope this also encourages other consumers to pull their credit reports at least once a year and look for any negative or inaccurate items they need to dispute. Remember to try and include all three credit reporting agencies while making a dispute.

Ramesh Commented on November 14, 2006

I had a slightly different experience with a Cingular wireless account in default. I DO HAVE a Cingular wireless account which I have had for more than 2 years, never a late payment. So, I was concerned when I received a phone call saying I had Cingular account which was overdue at home. I called Cingular and they had no record of a delinquent account in my name. I guess I have to look for a problem record on my credit file?

Mossi N lvus Commented on June 16, 2017

MichaelNub Commented on September 14, 2017

[url=]wellbutrin hcl[/url] [url=]buy antabuse[/url] [url=]vardenafil[/url] [url=]ampicillin online[/url]

AlfredCaf Commented on September 14, 2017

[url=]effexor xr[/url] [url=]cephalexin 250 mg[/url] [url=]Cheap Doxycycline[/url]

MichaelNub Commented on September 15, 2017

[url=]buy methotrexate[/url] [url=]average cost of viagra prescription[/url] [url=]cialis without prescription[/url] [url=]buy proscar online[/url]

KennethCed Commented on September 15, 2017

[url=]medrol prices[/url] [url=]doxycycline[/url]

Brettlix Commented on September 16, 2017

[url=]colchicine online[/url] [url=]Bupropion[/url] [url=]buy cipro[/url]

CharlesLiede Commented on September 16, 2017

[url=]diclofenac sodium 50 mg[/url] [url=]doxycycline[/url]

CharlesLiede Commented on September 16, 2017

[url=]Doxycycline Price[/url] [url=]fluoxetine[/url]

MichaelNub Commented on September 27, 2017

wh0cd149824 [url=]generic cleocin[/url] clindamycin [url=]clomid online[/url] clomid 50 [url=]Drospirenone Sale[/url] CHEAPEST DROSPIRENONE [url=]zebeta 5 mg[/url] zebeta [url=]alli orlistat 60mg[/url] order alli

MichaelNub Commented on September 30, 2017

wh0cd149824 [url=]buy zoloft[/url] generic zoloft [url=]levitra 5 mg[/url] levitra [url=]neurontin[/url] neurontin [url=]Buy Sildenafil[/url] where to buy sildenafil

MichaelNub Commented on October 1, 2017

wh0cd149824 [url=]calan[/url] calan sr [url=]atarax online[/url] Atarax By Mail Order

MichaelNub Commented on October 1, 2017

wh0cd149824 [url=]tetracycline 500 mg[/url] tetracycline

MichaelNub Commented on October 3, 2017

wh0cd149824 [url=]toprol xl cost[/url] Toprol [url=]zovirax[/url] genricvalacyclovir [url=]buy cephalexin[/url] buy cephalexin [url=]lasuna[/url] lasuna [url=]bupropion sr[/url] bupropion sr

MichaelNub Commented on October 4, 2017

wh0cd149824 [url=]ZETIA PRICE[/url] generic zetia [url=]zyvox price[/url] zyvox [url=]amoxicillin[/url] amoxicillin tablets

MichaelNub Commented on October 4, 2017

wh0cd134824 [url=]Benadryl[/url] Benadryl Price [url=]zoloft price[/url] zoloft price [url=]lopid[/url] lopid 600 mg [url=]albuterol cost[/url] ALBUTEROL IPRATROPIUM

Bennyanymn Commented on October 4, 2017

wh0cd134824 [url=]buy atenolol[/url] atenolol generic [url=]elocon ointment[/url]

AlfredCaf Commented on October 4, 2017

wh0cd134824 [url=]Buy Suhagra[/url] [url=]tadacip[/url] buy tadacip 20 mg [url=]tadacip[/url] find out more [url=]more hints[/url]

chenlina Commented on October 26, 2017


20171027yuanyuan Commented on October 27, 2017

chanyuan Commented on November 29, 2017


ChrisChich Commented on December 6, 2017

cialis for sale in nz
cialis rezeptfrei
where to buy cheap cialis
[url=]cialis without doctor[/url]
red cialis pills

LouisOwete Commented on December 6, 2017

how to buy cialis from canada
cialis without a doctor prescription
cialis pills in uk
[url=]no prescription cialis[/url]
want buy cialis uk

CarlosEpinc Commented on December 7, 2017

buy cialis in usa
cialis on line no pres
order generic viagra cialis
[url=]cialis without a doctor's prescription[/url]
cialis buy online

Robertdal Commented on December 7, 2017

discount brand cialis
cialis on line no pres
cheap cialis uk suppliers
[url=]cialis rezeptfrei[/url]
cialis average wholesale price

AndreThymn Commented on December 7, 2017

buy legit viagra
cheap viagra
how viagra pills looks like
[url=]viagra prices[/url]
precio viagra 50 mg pfizer

ArmandoSIT Commented on December 7, 2017

online viagra scams
viagra online
viagra by mail order
[url=]buy viagra online[/url]
order viagra online overnight delivery

Roberthob Commented on December 8, 2017

how can i get a viagra sample
buy viagra online
sildenafil magnus 25 mg
[url=]viagra pills[/url]
order viagra online canadian pharmacy

Donaldpyday Commented on December 8, 2017

viagra cheap
viagra prices
generic viagra buy online
[url=]viagra online[/url]
is it illegal to sell generic viagra

Marvinhog Commented on December 8, 2017

free trial generic viagra
buy viagra online
mixing viagra cialis together
[url=]viagra prices[/url]
is it illegal to order generic viagra

Claytonlaugs Commented on December 9, 2017

cialis tadalafil 20mg tablets
cheap cialis
cialis sale uk
[url=]buy cialis[/url]
buy cialis black online

DesmondNicky Commented on December 10, 2017
best price for viagra
efectos del sildenafil 100mg
[url=]viagra prices[/url]
why do you think that health insurance usually cover viagra but not birth control pills

EvelynInven Commented on December 11, 2017

payday advance
[url=]cash advance[/url]
payday advance
cash loans

Robertgrare Commented on December 12, 2017

viagra 100 mg fiyat
viagra no prescription
is it safe to buy viagra online in canada
[url=]viagra no prescription[/url]
where to buy viagra toronto

Andrewblumb Commented on December 12, 2017

farmacie online sicure viagra
viagra no script
nome generico viagra ems
[url=]viagra without prescription[/url]
expired viagra pill

KatrinaFab Commented on December 13, 2017

payday loans
[url=]online payday loans[/url]
payday loan online
pay day loan

Andrewblumb Commented on December 13, 2017

sildenafil with 30mg of dapoxetine
viagra no prescription
where do you buy viagra in australia
[url=]viagra ohne rezept aus deutschland[/url]
can you buy viagra germany

ThomasThync Commented on December 13, 2017

generic cialis vs viagra
viagra no prescription
viagra shipped to canada online
[url=]viagra no script[/url]
where i buy viagra

ThomastaB Commented on December 13, 2017

sildenafil tabletten 100mg
viagra without prescription
is viagra cheaper than cialis
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
cheap brand name viagra online
viagra no script
sildenafil online india
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
life of a viagra salesman

RobertStisa Commented on December 14, 2017

where to buy viagra and cialis
viagra without a doctor prescription
buying viagra in ireland
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
viagra in deutschland online bestellen
viagra without prescription
how can i get a free sample of viagra
[url=]viagra no prescription[/url]
is it easy to get viagra from a doctor

EdwinRix Commented on December 14, 2017

viagra generic krka
viagra without a doctor prescription
taking 2 50mg viagra
[url=]viagra without prescription[/url]
viagra japan buy
viagra ohne rezept aus deutschland
generic viagra super
[url=]viagra no script[/url]
150 mg sildenafil citrate

Russellreume Commented on December 15, 2017

buy viagra with money order
viagra without prescription
sildenafil pfizer 100mg hinta
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
prospect viagra 50 mg
viagra without prescription
buy viagra in europa
[url=]viagra without prescription[/url]
buying viagra in united states

Jimmierak Commented on December 15, 2017

spot fake viagra pill
viagra without prescription
buy viagra superdrug
[url=]viagra without prescription[/url]
has anyone purchased viagra online
viagra no script
can u cut viagra pill half
[url=]viagra no script[/url]
effet du viagra 100mg

GeorgeBeexy Commented on December 16, 2017

buying real viagra
viagra without prescription
can i buy viagra in usa
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
viagra usa online
viagra without a doctor prescription
how to buy sildenafil citrate
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
where i buy viagra

RogerThevy Commented on December 17, 2017

what does a generic viagra look like
viagra without prescription
viagra generika kaufen apotheke
[url=]viagra without prescription[/url]
legal buy viagra uk
viagra no script
best place to order viagra online
[url=]viagra without prescription[/url]
get prescription online for viagra

MichaelBed Commented on December 18, 2017

buy viagra online in new zealand
viagra cost
what is use of viagra tablet
[url=]viagra cost[/url]
how long does 50mg viagra last

Bryanpaurb Commented on December 19, 2017

medicamento generico do viagra
viagra prices
medicamento generico do viagra
[url=]viagra cost[/url]
viagra canada discount

Rosettaknops Commented on December 20, 2017

payday loans no credit check
[url=]payday loans no credit check[/url]
payday loans
payday loans no credit check

LaurieVef Commented on December 22, 2017

payday loans no credit
[url=]payday loans online no credit check[/url]
payday loans no credit check
payday loans no credit check

EdwardVof Commented on December 23, 2017

buy cialis viagra canada
buy cialis online
cialis by mail order
[url=]buy cialis[/url]
order cialis no prescription online

LionelQuavy Commented on December 25, 2017

buy cialis singapore
generic cialis
cialis buy in uk
[url=]buy generic cialis[/url]
cialis sale ireland
cialis price
buy cialis daily use
[url=]cheap cialis[/url]
buy cialis tablets uk

Grantvoria Commented on December 25, 2017

generic viagra safe not
buy viagra
price viagra going up
[url=]buy viagra online[/url]
viagra international sales
generic viagra online
can i buy viagra in pharmacy
[url=]cheap viagra online[/url]
viagra online holland

MichaelexCar Commented on December 26, 2017

order viagra
viagra online pharmacy
tadalafil sildenafil together
[url=]buy viagra online pharmacy[/url]
ordering viagra online is it safe
generic viagra online
buy viagra hawaii
[url=]viagra online pharmacy[/url]
how to buy viagra in usa

Eliseolex Commented on December 26, 2017

cheap canadian cialis
cialis price
buy cialis philippines
[url=]cialis prices[/url]
best pharmacy to buy cialis
cheap cialis
how to buy cialis
[url=]cialis prices[/url]
can cut cialis pills half

ShirleyJally Commented on December 27, 2017

casino games
[url=]online casino[/url]
online casino
real money casino

EdwardJug Commented on December 28, 2017

п»їcasino online
[url=]real money casino[/url]
real money casino
real money casino

Scottnen Commented on December 28, 2017

can you get arrested for buying viagra online
viagra without presciption online
current price viagra india
[url=]viagra without a doctor prescription[/url]
viagra pills for sale uk
viagra prices
siti sicuri per acquistare viagra generico
[url=]viagra cost[/url]
can i buy viagra over the counter in amsterdam

Edwardsib Commented on December 30, 2017

online roulette money
casino online
winstar casino credit card
[url=]casino online[/url]
roulette roulette

CarlosLoope Commented on December 30, 2017

blackjack real money mac
casino real money
online keno usa players
online casino us bet

Barbaraantek Commented on December 30, 2017

free casino games
[url=]real money casino[/url]
free casino games
casino games

Paulineled Commented on December 30, 2017

free casino games
[url=]online casino[/url]
real money casino
free casino games

Nancyjaw Commented on January 1, 2018

free casino games
[url=]real money casino[/url]
casino online
casino games

AliceSak Commented on January 1, 2018

free casino games
[url=]online casino[/url]
casino online
casino online

chenlina Commented on January 4, 2018


KerryDyese Commented on January 9, 2018

free online slots
[url=]free slots games[/url]
slots for free
free slots games

Patrickemogs Commented on January 9, 2018

free slots online
[url=]casino games slots[/url]
slots free
free casino games slot machines

wanglili Commented on January 9, 2018

BrianFak Commented on January 10, 2018

autocad sample drawings download
autocad release 14 serial number cd key
[url=]autocad lt[/url]
license autocad 2012
autocad 2018
autocad r13 r13 autodesk download
[url=]auto cad[/url]
autocad isocircle

PhillipMiree Commented on January 12, 2018

viagra purple pill
online viagra
doc morris viagra 100mg
[url=]buy viagra[/url]
viagra sales in the united states
viagra cheap
can get viagra prescription
[url=]cheap viagra[/url]
malaysia viagra online

GregoryAlodo Commented on January 14, 2018

best site to order generic viagra
order viagra online
best generic viagra uk
[url=]order viagra online[/url]
cialis viagra buy
cheap viagra
viagra online bestellen schweiz
[url=]viagra prices[/url]
achat viagra 100mg

Helenmex Commented on January 16, 2018

loan cash
[url=]loans online instant approval[/url]
loan cash
loans online only

JamesDraig Commented on January 16, 2018

when does viagra go generic in us
non-prescription viagra
lloyds pharmacy buy viagra
[url=]viagra without script[/url]
old do you have get prescription viagra
viagra coupons
will viagra become generic
viagra pills for cheap

DanielclabE Commented on January 17, 2018

buy viagra cialis levitra
buy cialis online
buy cialis online no prescription
[url=]buy cialis online[/url]
cialis on sale
cialis tablets
buy cheap cialis online uk
[url=]cialis cost[/url]
safe place to buy cialis

Melvinbib Commented on January 18, 2018

autocad civil 3d price
low cost autocad
autocad lite 2011 download
download autocad
dibujos en autocad gratis para descargar
[url=]download autocad[/url]
autocad 3d dwg download

Sophiacromi Commented on January 19, 2018

free casino games slots no download
[url=]pogo casino slots[/url]
free casino games no download no registration
real money online

Add Your Comments

Remember personal information?

(It will take a few moments for your comment to be published. Please do not close the window until then.)

Read More ... 138 Posts In The Same Category

This page was last rebuilt at January 19, 2018 04:55 AM PST. (540 Words)



Consumerism Commentary
Get Rich Slowly
My Money Blog
All Financial Matters
The Simple Dollar


Copyright 2003-2014, All Rights Reserved. (Privacy Policy)